Although it is known that anti-PD1/L1 monotherapy does not render significant benefit in patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma, whether the addition of anti-PD1/L1 therapy to chemotherapy can enhance chemotherapy efficacy for TKI-refractory EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients is not clear. To address this question, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 178 EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients who had progressed on EGFR TKIs and received subsequent non-TKI systemic therapy to determine whether the addition of immunotherapy to chemotherapy truly improves clinical outcomes. We found that the addition of anti-PD1 immunotherapy did not add benefit to the platinum-based chemotherapy at the time of TKI progression for EGFR-mutant LUAD. Although underpowered, the anti-VEGF therapy demonstrated a trend towards adding benefit. As ongoing clinical trials with newer agents or combinations demonstrate preliminary efficacy in TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant LUAD patients, the ideal choice for post-TKI treatment is still being evaluated. Read more.